negara irak

Irak

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الجمهورية العراقية
Al-Jumhuriyah Al-Iraqiyah
كۆماری عێراق
Komara Iraqê
Bendera
Motto: ‘Allahu Akbar
(Arab: “Allah Maha Besar”)
Lagu kebangsaan: Mawtini 1

Ibu kota Bagdad2
Kota terbesar Bagdad
Bahasa resmi Arab, Kurdi 3, Assyria
Pemerintahan Republik
Presiden Jalal Talabani
Wakil Presiden Adil Abdul-Mahdi
Tariq al-Hashimi
Perdana Menteri Nouri al-Maliki
Kemerdekaan
Dari Kerajaan Ottoman 1 Oktober 1919
Dari Britania Raya 3 Oktober 1932
Kedaulatan dari CPA 28 Juni 2004
Luas
Total 437,072 km2 (58)
Air (%) 1,1%
Penduduk
Perkiraan 2005 26.074.906 (45)
Sensus –
Kepadatan 59/km2 (112)
PDB (KKB) Perkiraan 2005
Total US$89,8 miliar (58)
Per kapita US$3.500 (122)
Mata uang Dinar (IQD)
Zona waktu (UTC+3)
Musim panas (DST) (UTC+4)
Domain internet .iq
Kode telepon 964
1. Etnis Kurdi menggunakan Ey Reqîb.

2. Ibu kota Daerah Otonomi Kurdi adalah Arbil.

3. Bahasa utama di tiga daerah Kurdi.

Republik Irak (nama lokal: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah – nama lokal singkat: Al Iraq [1] (Arab: info dengarkan, Turki: Irak, Kurdi: عيَراق), adalah sebuah negara di Timur Tengah atau Asia Barat Daya, yang meliputi sebagian terbesar daerah Mesopotamia serta ujung barat laut dari Pegunungan Zagros dan bagian timur dari Gurun Suriah. Negara ini berbatasan dengan Kuwait dan Arab Saudi di selatan, Yordania di barat, Suriah di barat laut, Turki di utara, dan Iran di timur. Irak mempunyai bagian yang sangat sempit dari garis pantai di Umm Qashr di Teluk Persia.

Irak mempunyai sejarah yang kaya. Kini Irak termasuk negara berkembang di tengah-tengah perang saudara.

Daftar isi

[sembunyikan]

//

[sunting] Nama

Ada beberapa pendapat tentang asal-usul nama Irak; – satu di antaranya berasal dari kota Uruk (atau Erech) dari masa Kerajaan Sumer. Pendapat lainnya mengatakan bahwa Irak berasal dari bahasa Aram, yang berarti “tanah sepanjang tepian sungai.” Pendapat lainnya mengatakan bahwa Irak adalah sebuah rujukan kepada akar pohon palma, karena jumlahnya banyak sekali di negara itu.

Di bawah Dinasti Sassanid Persia, ada wilayah yang dinamai “Erak Arabi” yang merujuk ke bagian dari wilayah barat daya Kekaisaran Persia, yang kini merupakan bagian dari Irak selatan. Al-Iraq adalah nama yang digunakan oleh orang-orang Arab sendiri untuk daerah ini sejak abad ke-6.

[sunting] Sejarah

[sunting] Sejarah kuno

Bagian atas dari stela aturan hukum Hammurabi.

Secara historis Irak dikenal sebagai Mesopotamia, yang secara harafiah berarti “di antara sungai-sungai” dalam bahasa Yunani. Tanah ini menjadi tempat kelahiran peradaban pertama dunia yang dikenal, budaya Sumeria, diikuti dengan budaya Akkadia, Babilonia dan Asyur yang pengaruhnya meluas ke daerah-daerah tetangganya sejak sekitar 5000 SM. Peradaban-peradaban ini menghasilkan tulisan tertua dan sebagian dari ilmu pengetahuan, matematika, hukum dan filsafat yang pertama di dunia, hingga menjadikan wilayah ini pusat dari apa yang umumnya dikenal sebagai “Buaian Peradaban“. Peradaban Mesopotamia kuno mendominasi peradaban-peradaban lainnya pada zamannya.

Pada abad ke-6 SM, wilayah ini menjadi bagian dari Kekaisaran Persia di bawah Koresy Agung selama hampir 4 abad, sebelum ditaklukkan oleh Alexander Agung dan tetap berada di bawah kekuasaan Yunani selama hampir dua abad. Sebuah suku bangsa Iran dari Asia Tengah yang bernama Parthia kemudian merebut wilayah ini, diikuti dengan Dinasti Sassanid Persia selama 9 abad, hingga abad ke-7.

Di awal abad ke-7, Islam menyebar ke daerah yang sekarang bernama Irak. Sepupu sekaligus menantu Nabi Muhammad memindahkan ibukota di Kufah “fi al-Iraq” di mana ia menjadi Khulafaur Rasyidin yang ke-4. Bani Umayyah yang berkuasa dari Damaskus di abad ke-7 menguasai Provinsi Irak.

Baghdad, ibukota Khilafah Abbasiyah, adalah kota utama bagi dunia Arab dan Islam selama 5 abad.

[sunting] Turki Usmani

Pada tahun 1258, Baghdad dihancurkan oleh bangsa Mongol. Turki Usmani mengambil alih Baghdad dari Persia pada tahun 1535. Usmani kehilangan Baghdad ke Dinasti Safavid Persia pada tahun 1509, dan mengambilnya kembali pada tahun 1632. Kekuasaan Utsmani atas Irak berlangsung hingga Perang Dunia I saat Khilafah Turki Usmani berada bersama Kekaisaran Jerman dan Blok Sentral.

[sunting] Pemerintahan

[sunting] Politik

[sunting] Kebijakan minoritas

[sunting] Pembagian administrasi

Lihat pula: Distrik di Irak

Irak dibagi ke dalam 18 governorat (atau provinsi) (bahasa Arab: muhafadhat, tunggal – muhafadhah, bahasa Kurdi: پاریزگه Pârizgah). Governorat dibagi lagi ke dalam sejumlah qadhas (atau distrik).

  1. Baghdad
  2. Salah ad Din
  3. Diyala
  4. Wasit
  5. Maysan
  6. Al Basrah
  7. Dhi Qar
  8. Al Muthanna
  9. Al-Qādisiyyah
  1. Babil
  2. Karbala
  3. An Najaf
  4. Al Anbar
  5. Ninawa
  6. Dahuk
  7. Arbil
  8. At Ta’mim (Kirkuk)
  9. As Sulaymaniyah
IraqNumberedRegions.png

Konstitusi Irak yang baru mempersiapkan pembentukan sejumlah region dengan menggabungkan 1 governorat atau lebih. Sekarang baru ada 1 region – Kurdistan Irak – dan ada usulan agar lebih banyak lagi region yang dibentuk di selatan. Templat:Meso Labelled Map

[sunting] Demografi

Diperkirakan pada bulan Juli 2006 jumlah semua penduduk Irak ialah 26.783.383.

75-80% penduduk Irak adalah bangsa Arab; kelompok etnis utama lainnya adalah Kurdi (15-20%), Asiria, Turkmen Irak dll (5%), yang kebanyakan tinggal di utara dan timur laut negeri. Kelompok lainnya adalah orang Persia dan Armenia (kemungkinan keturunan budaya Mesopotamia kuno). ±25.000–60.000 orang Arab Marsh tinggal di selatan Irak.

Bahasa Arab dan Kurdi adalah bahasa resmi. Bahasa Asiria dan Turkmen adalah bahasa resmi di daerah-daerah yang berturut-turut ditinggali oleh orang Asiria dan Turkmen. Bahasa Armenia dan Persia juga dituturkan namun jarang. Bahasa Inggris adalah bahasa Barat yang umum dituturkan.

Komposisi etnis:

  • Kelompok etnis: Arab, 75–80%; suku Kurdi, 15-20%; Turkoman, Assyria atau lainnya 5%.
  • Agama: Islam, 97%; Kristen atau lainnya, 3%.

Proporsi: Tidak ada angka resmi yang tersedia, terutama karena sifatnya yang sangat politis. Sumber: Britannica: Syi’ah 60%, Sunni 40% Sumber: CIA World Fact Book: Syi’ah 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%

Menurut kebanyakan sumber-sumber barat, mayoritas bangsa Irak adalah orang Arab Muslim Syi’ah (sekitar 60%), dan Sunni yang mewakili sekitar 40% dari seluruh populasi yang terdiri dari suku Arab, Kurdi dan Turkmen. Orang-orang Sunni menyangkal keras angka-angka ini, termasuk seorang bekas duta besar Irak [2], yang mengacu ke sumber-sumber Amerika [3]. Mereka mengklaim bahwa banyak laporan atau sumber hanya mencantumkan Sunni Arab hanya sebagai ‘Sunni’, dan tidak memperhitungkan orang-orang Sunni Kurdi dan Sunni Turkmen. Sebagian berpendapat bahwa Sensus Irak 2003 memperlihatkan bahwa orang-orang Sunni sedikit lebih banyak[4]. Etnis Assyria (kebanyakan daripadanya adalah pemeluk Gereja Katolik Khaldea dan Gereja Assyria di Timur) mewakili sebagian terbesar penduduk Kristen Irak yang cukup besar, bersama-sama dengan orang Armenia. Pemeluk Bahá’í, Mandeanisme, Shabak, dan Yezidi juga ada. Kebanyakan orang Kurdi adalah pemeluk Muslim Sunni, meskipun kaum Kurdi Faili (Feyli) umumnya adalah Syi’ah.

[sunting] Budaya

Seorang gadis Irak yang tinggal dekat Penyulingan Minyak Al Daura.

Dalam milenium yang paling mutakhir, Irak telah dibagi menjadi lima daerah budaya: Kurdi di utara yang berpusat di Arbil, Arab Islam Sunni di tengah sekitar Baghdad, Arab Islam Syi’ah di selatan yang berpusat di Basra, Assyria, sekelompok orang Kristen, yang tinggal di berbagaikota di utara, dan Arab Rawa, sekelompok orang yang berpindah-pindah, yang tinggal di daerah berawa-rawa di sungai tengah. Pasar dan barter adalah bentung perdagangan yang lazim mereka lakukan.

[sunting] Musik

Irak dikenal terutama karena alat musik yang disebut oud (mirip dengan lute) dan rebab; bintang-bintangnya termasuk Ahmed Mukhtar dan Munir Bashir, seorang Assyria. Hingga kejatuhan Saddam Hussein, stasiun radio yang paling populer adalah Suara Pemuda. Stasiun ini memainkan campuran musik rock barat, hip hop dan musik pop, yang semuanya harus diimpor lewat Yordania karena adanya sanksi ekonomi internasional. Irak juga memproduksi seorang bintang pop pan-Arab penting yang hidup di pengasingan yaitu Kazem al Saher, yang lagu-lagunya mencakup Ladghat E-Hayya, yang dilarang karena kata-katanya yang terlalu keras.

[sunting] Galeria

[sunting]

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Iraq
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الجمهورية العراقية
Al-Jumhuriyah Al-Iraqiyah
كۆماری عێراق
Komara Iraqê

Flag
‘Motto:’ Allahu Akbar
(Arabic: “Allah is Great”)
Anthem: Mawtini 1
Bagdad2 capitals
Baghdad’s largest city
Official language Arabic, Kurdish 3, Assyrians
Government of the Republic
– President Jalal Talabani
– Vice President Adil Abdul-Mahdi
Tariq al-Hashimi
– Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki
Independence
– From the Ottoman Empire October 1, 1919
– From October 3, 1932 United Kingdom
– The sovereignty from the CPA June 28, 2004
Wide
– Total 437.072 km2 (58th)
– Water (%) 1.1%
Population
– Estimated 2005 26.074.906 (45)
– Censuses – –
– Density 59/km2 (112)
GDP (CLA) Estimated 2005
– Total U.S. $ 89.8 billion (58)
– Per capita U.S. $ 3,500 (122)
Currency Dinar (IQD)
Time zone (UTC +3)
– Summer (DST) (UTC +4)
Internet domain. Iq
964 phone code
1. Kurds use Reqîb Ey.

2. The capital of the Kurdish Autonomous Region is Arbil.
3. The main language in the three Kurdish regions.

Republic of Iraq (local name: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah – a short local name: Al Iraq [1] (Arabic: info listen, Turkey: Iraq, Kurds: عيراق), is a country in the Middle East or southwestern Asia encompassing most Mesopotamia as well as the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. It shares borders with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the west, Syria to the northwest, Turkey to the north, and Iran in the east. Iraq has a very narrow from the coastline at Umm Qasr on the Persian Gulf.

Iraq has a rich history. Now Iraq, including developing countries in the midst of civil war.
Table of contents
[Hide]

* First name
* 2 History
o 2.1 Ancient History
o 2.2 Ottoman Empire
* 3 Government
o 1.3 Politics
+ 3.1.1 Minority Policy
o 3.2 Administrative divisions
* 4 Demographics
* 5 Culture
o 1.5 Music
* 6 Galeria
* 7 See also
* 8 See also
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links
o 10.1 Government
* 11 See also
o 11.1 Overview
o 11/02 News
o 11.3 Other

[Edit] Name

There are several opinions about the origin of the name of Iraq; – one of them comes from the city of Uruk (or Erech) from the kingdom of Sumer. Another opinion says that Iraq comes from the Aramaic, meaning “the land along the banks of the river.” Another opinion says that Iraq is a reference to the roots of palm trees, because their numbers a lot in that country.

Under the Persian Sassanid dynasty, there is a region called “Iraq Arabi” which refers to the southwestern part of the Persian Empire, which now form part of southern Iraq. Al-Iraqi was the name used by the Arabs themselves to this area since the 6th century.
[Edit] History
! Main article: History of Iraq
[Edit] Ancient History
The main article for this section are: Sumerian
The upper part of the rule of law Hammurabi Stela.

Iraq historically known as Mesopotamia, which literally means “between the rivers” in Greek. Land has become the birthplace of the world’s first known civilization, the Sumerian culture, followed by culture Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian whose influence extended into neighboring regions since around 5000 BC. These civilizations produced the oldest writings and partly from science, mathematics, law and philosophy of the first in the world, to make this region the center of what is commonly known as “crib Civilizations”. Ancient Mesopotamian civilization dominated other civilizations of the time.

In the 6th century BC, this region became part of the Persian Empire under Cyrus the Great for nearly four centuries, until conquered by Alexander the Great and remained under Greek rule for nearly two centuries. An Iranian tribes from Central Asia called the Parthians had captured this region, followed by the Sassanid Dynasty of Persia during the 9th century, until the 7th century.

In the early 7th century, Islam spread to the area now called Iraq. Prophet Muhammad’s cousin, once-in-law moved the capital in Kufa “fi al-Iraq” where he became the first four caliphs of the 4th. The Umayyads ruling from Damascus in the 7th century over the Province of Iraq.

Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, was a major city for the Arab and Islamic world during the 5th century.
[Edit] Ottoman Empire
The main article for this section are: Ottoman Empire

In 1258, Baghdad was destroyed by the Mongols. Ottoman Turks took over Baghdad from the Persians in the year 1535. Ottoman lost Baghdad to the Persian Safavid dynasty in 1509, and took it back in the year 1632. Ottoman power over Iraq lasted until World War I when the Caliphate of the Ottoman Empire was with Imperial Germany and the Axis.
[Edit] Government
[Edit] Politics
Image: IRAQ map black nad white.jpg
Iraq Map
The main article for this section are: Politics in Iraq
[Edit] Minority Policy
The main article for this section are: Minority Policy in Iraq
[Edit] Administrative divisions
The main article for this section are: Governorates of Iraq

See also: Districts of Iraq

Iraq is divided into 18 governorates (or provinces) (Arabic: muhafadhat, singular – muhafadhah, Kurdish language: پاریزگه Pârizgah). Governorates are further divided into a number qadhas (or district).

1. Baghdad
2. One ad Din
3. Diyala
4. Referee
5. Maysan
6. Al Basrah
7. Dhi Qar
8. Al Muthanna
9. Al-al-Qādisiyyah

10. Quarrelsome
11. Karbala
12. An Najaf
13. Al Anbar
14. Ninawa
15. Dahuk
16. Erbil
17. At Ta’mim (Kirkuk)
18. As Sulaymaniyah

IraqNumberedRegions.png
The main article for this section are: Federalism in Iraq

Iraq’s new constitution to prepare the establishment of a number of regions by combining one or more governorates. Now there is a new region – Iraqi Kurdistan – and there was a suggestion that more regions are formed in the south. Template: Meso Labelled Map
[Edit] Demographics
! Main article: Demographics of Iraq

It is estimated that in July 2006 the number of all of Iraq’s population is 26,783,383.

75-80% population of Iraq is the Arab nation; other major ethnic groups is the Kurdish (15-20%), Assyrian, Iraqi Turkmen, etc. (5%), most of whom live in the north and northeast of the country. Other groups are Persians and Armenians (possible descendants of the ancient Mesopotamian culture). ± 25000-60000 Marsh Arabs live in southern Iraq.

Arabic and Kurdish are official languages. Assyrian and Turkmen languages are official languages in the areas successively occupied by the Assyrians and Turkmen. Armenian and Persian are also spoken but rarely. English is commonly spoken Western language.

Ethnic Composition:

* Ethnic groups: Arab 75-80%, Kurds, 15-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%.
* Religion: Muslim 97%, Christian or other 3%.

Proportion: No official figures are available, mainly because of its highly political. Source: Britannica: 60% Shiite, Sunni 40% Source: CIA World Fact Book: Shi’a 60% -65%, Sunni 32% -37%

* Shiite: generally with some Turkmen and Arab Faili Kurds almost all of them are followers of Twelver flow
* Sunni: consists of Arabs, Turkmen who embrace the Hanafi School and the Kurds who embrace Shafi’i School

According to most western sources, the majority of Iraqis are Shiite Muslim Arabs (about 60%), and Sunnis represent about 40% of the total population of Arab tribes, Kurds and Turkmen. Sunni people hard to deny these numbers, including a former ambassador to Iraq [2], referring to American sources [3]. They claim that many reports or sources only include Arab Sunnis only as ‘Sunni’, and did not consider those Sunni Kurds and Sunni Turkmen. Some argue that Iraq’s 2003 census shows that people are Sunni bit more [4]. Ethnic Assyrians (most of it is the adherents of Chaldean Catholic Church and Assyrian Church of the East), representing most of Iraq’s Christian population is large enough, together with the Armenians. Baha’i adherents, Mandeanisme, Shabak, and Yezidi were also there. Most Kurds are Sunni Muslim adherents, although the Faili Kurds (Feyli) generally is Shiite.
[Edit] Culture
The main article for this section are: Iraqi Culture
Iraqi girl who lived near the Al Daura oil refineries.

In the most recent millennium, Iraq has been divided into five cultural areas: Kurdish in the north centered on Arbil, Sunni Islamic Arabs in the center around Baghdad, Shi’a Islamic Arabs in the south centered on Basra, Assyrians, a group of Christians, who lived in berbagaikota in the north, and Arabs Swamp, a group of people moving around, living in marshy areas in the middle river. Markets and bartering are the common trade bentung they do.
[Edit] Music
The main article for this section are: Music of Iraq, Kurdish Music, and Music Assyrian

Iraq is known primarily as a musical instrument called an oud (similar to the Lute) and fiddle; stars include Ahmed Mukhtar and Munir Bashir, an Assyrian. Until the fall of Saddam Hussein, the most popular radio stations is the Voice for Youth. This station plays a mix of western rock music, hip hop and pop music, all of which must be imported via Jordan due to international economic sanctions. Iraq also produced a pan-Arab pop star who lives in exile importance of Kazem al Saher, which includes songs Ladghat E-Hayya, which is banned because the words are too hard.
[Edit] Galeria

Tigris River near Mosul

Ishtar Gate (Ishtar Chapter) 604-562 BC Ancient Babylon

Minaret Samarra Iraq.jpg

Malwiya tower in Samarra

Hatra Ruins

Imam Ali shrine in Najaf

Boat on the River Euphrates
[Edit]

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